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Perché abbiamo paura? E cosa significa essere coraggiosi?

Vi siete mai chiesti perché abbiamo paura? E’ un’emozione, forse una è una delle emozioni più controverse e affascinanti, ma è positiva? E’ negativa? Quale è la sua funzione?

La paura: emozione positiva o negativa?

Per molti si tratta di un emozione negativa: meglio stare tranquilli e sentirsi al sicuro. Sicuramente se chiedessimo a queste persone:”A cosa serve la paura” ci risponderebbero: “A stare male”, per questo motivo per questi timorosi niente Space Vertigo, niente film horror e alla larga da tuffi dagli scogli e dal bungee jumping. Al contrario, per alcune persone la paura è una componente essenziale della vita, che li spinge alla ricerca continua del rischio e di emozioni forti. E’ stato dato un nome a questi soggetti, che la psicologia chiama novelty seeker. Sono persone che vivono a stretto contatto con rischiosi,  passatempi adrenalinici, hobbies pericolosi, non si fermano mai e sono sempre alla ricerca di emozioni forti. Ma anche nella quotidianità, un film o un libro, tutto per loro deve essere arricchito dell’emozione adrenalinica della paura.   

Perché ci sono fifoni e coraggiosi?

Per capire perché abbiamo paura bisogna sapere perché qualcuno di noi è un fifone e qualcun’altro è coraggioso.  Secondo la scienza la risposta sarebbe nel nostro cervello. Infatti la paura è un’emozione legata alla dopamina, ossia un neurorasmettitore che svolge nel cervello un importante ruolo in tutte quelle esperienze che forniscono al soggetto gratificazione.  La quantità di dopamina in circolo può variare, ad esempio quando si attivano gli autorecettori c’è una limitazione nel rilascio della sostanza.

La ricerca della paura

Alcuni studi hanno dimostrato che minore è la dopamina che viene rilasciata, maggiore è la propensione a mettere in atto  comportamenti rischiosi che determinano paura in chi li mette in atto. Insomma le persone che amano la paura in realtà necessitano di emozioni più forti per raggiungere un livello di dopamina sufficiente al loro benessere, rispetto agli altri. Allo stesso modo le persone “fifone”  sarebbero particolarmente sensibili alle situazioni che inducono gratificazione e che normalmente creano un rilascio di dopamina. 

A cosa serve la paura

La paura esiste da sempre nell’uomo e nasce come istinto. Sostanzialmente serve  a tenerci al sicuro, infatti ci aiuta a reagire di fronte al pericolo, ma anche a comunicare agli altri la presenza di un pericolo. La reazione emotiva diventa una segnalazione d’emergenza rivolta a tutti i conspecifici vicini e quindi potenzialmente in pericolo. Inoltre la paura stimola anche la memoria e l’apprendimento per fare della brutta esperienza un’occasione di crescita.

 

 

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